Thursday, January 25, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, Thursday, January 25, 2007


NCJ 216711
Kris Henning ; Brian Renauer ; Robert Holdford
Victim or Offender?: Heterogeneity Among Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence
Journal of Family Violence Volume:21 Issue:6 Dated:August 2006 Pages:351 to 368

The analysis indicated that the women convicted of heterosexual IPV could be divided into four distinct subcategories: (1) no prior violence; (2) primary aggressor; (3) primary victim; and (4) primary aggressor not identified. Findings indicated that as a group, the male partners of these women were more violent and controlling than the women themselves. Couples in which the male was the primary aggressor were between three and eight times more prevalent than couples in which the female was the primary aggressor. Self-report data revealed that over half the cases involved a male primary aggressor while arrest data indicated that 60 percent of cases involving prior police contact had a primary male aggressor. Around 8 percent of women were considered the primary aggressor. The findings suggest that there is more similarity among women arrested and convicted of IPV than has previously been acknowledged. Additionally, the data suggest a relationship pattern of IPV consistent with women using violence as a self-defense tactic. Participants were 485 women convicted of domestic assault against a male intimate partner in Shelby County, TN. Participants completed questionnaires regarding their demographic information, their relationship, the offense for which they were arrested, prior relationship aggression, prior police involvement, domestic violence recidivism, family history, legal history, and mental health. Data were also drawn from the county-level arrest records of the participants. Data analysis involved the calculation of difference scores in relationship aggression using the women’s self-reported and police-reported IPV victimization and perpetration. Future theoretical and empirical research is necessary to build knowledge of the small but growing group of women who are arrested for IPV. Tables, references

NCJ 216742
Arielle Baskin-Sommers ; Ira Sommers
Methamphetamine Use and Violence Among Young Adults
Journal of Criminal Justice Volume:34 Issue:6 Dated:2006 Pages:661 to 674

Results of the study suggest that developmental factors are important contributors to violence. Anger, frustration, and situational opportunities were short-term motivating influences for violence. For many of the study sample participants that engaged in violence, chronic methamphetamine use had a disorganizing effect on their cognitive functions. The most significant pharmacologic determinants of the methamphetamine-violence link are the dose and the chronic exposure to the drug. At acute low doses, methamphetamine produces cognitive and mood alterations, but tends not to increase offensive-aggressive behavior. With increasing dose and long-term use, methamphetamine users tend to display psychological and physical deterioration, as well as changes in their social behavior. Many people behave aggressively when under the influence of drugs. It is apparent from these findings that methamphetamine use is a risk factor for violence. The findings have important implications for interventions aimed at reducing methamphetamine use and violence. The results suggest the importance of improving collaborative efforts across multiple intervention systems. Empirical evidence concerning patterns of violence is sparse, particularly its relationship to violence among young adults. This study was designed to explore the relationship among methamphetamine use and violence among young adults. The study sample included 55 respondents in drug treatment and 51 active community methamphetamine users. The majority of respondents were male Hispanic high school graduates in their 20s. Figure, tables, references

NCJ 216766
Mirka Smolej ; Janne Kivivuori
Relation Between Crime News and Fear of Violence
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention Volume:7 Issue:2 Dated:2006 Pages:211 to 227

Results indicated that exposure to tabloid front page stories was significantly associated with avoidant behavior and higher levels of fear of violent victimization. Moreover, people who exposed themselves to many different sources of crime news were more likely to fear violence than those exposed to fewer crime stories. These findings remained significant after controlling for personal and vicarious victimization experiences. Other findings revealed that unemployment status was significantly associated with fear of violence. This last finding lends support for a “vicarious fear theory” in which fear of crime anxiety may be created and propelled by other stressful life situations, such as unemployment. Data were drawn from the 2003 Finnish National Crime Victimization Survey, which included a representative sample of 8,163 individuals aged 15 years or older. Bivariate and multivariate regression models were used to examine the impact of two types of crime news exposure--exposure to crime-related tabloid headlines and the scope of exposure to different sources of crime news--on individuals’ avoidant behavior and fear of violent victimization. Future research should focus on the development of new indicators of crime news reception in order to better examine the relationship between different media products and fear of crime. Limitations of the study are discussed and include the exclusion of factors related to the personal characteristics of respondents. Tables, footnotes, references, appendix

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