Saturday, October 06, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, Adolescents and Substance Abuse Articles


NCJ 219741
Jennifer E. Pumphrey-Gordon; Alan M. Gross
Alcohol Consumption and Females' Recognition in Response to Date Rape Risk: The Role of Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies
Journal of Family Violence
Volume:22 Issue:6 Dated:August 2007 Pages:475 to 485

This study examined the effects of alcohol on women's recognition of and response to sexual aggression in interaction with dating partners, as well as the influence of the women's beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior. The study found that among the 103 female college students, those who consumed alcohol and held strong pre-existing beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual behavior tended to be less able to mount a resistant response to cues of sexual aggression by a dating partner. The women who believed that alcohol acted to increase sexual risk-taking, enhance sexual experience, and disinhibit sexual behavior engaged in fewer refusal responses under the influence of alcohol when confronted with a dating partner's sexual aggression. No significant relationships were found between alcohol consumption and delayed perception of cues for sexual aggression by a dating partner. This was also the case for beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior. Future research should focus on the mechanisms by which beliefs about alcohol's influence on sexual behavior and sexual risk-taking affect responses to sexual aggression while the potential victim is under the influence of alcohol. The women listened to an audiotape date rape vignette and were asked to press a button when the man's sexual advances had gone too far. Upon pressing the button, the tape was stopped and the women were instructed to imagine themselves in the same situation and describe what they would say and/or do. Groups were distinguished and compared according to no alcohol consumption, measured levels of alcohol consumption, and beliefs about the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors with and without the influence of alcohol. 2 tables and 41 references

NCJ 219691
Mallie J. Paschall; Joel W. Grube; Carol Black; Christopher L. Ringwalt
Is Commercial Alcohol Availability Related to Adolescent Alcohol Sources and Alcohol Use?: Findings From a Multi-Level Study
Journal of Adolescent Health
Volume:41 Issue:2 Dated:August 2007 Pages:168 to 174

This study examined whether compliance with underage sales laws for alcoholic beverages by licensed retail establishments was related to underage use of commercial and social alcohol sources (friends older and younger than 21, from home without permission, from a parent, from a sibling, or asking a stranger to buy it), perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, and alcohol use. The study found that compliance with underage alcohol sales laws by licensed retail establishments might affect underage alcohol use indirectly through its effect on underage use of commercial alcohol sources and perceived ease of obtaining alcoholic beverages; however, the use of social alcohol sources was more strongly related to underage drinking than use of commercial alcohol sources and perceived ease of obtaining alcoholic beverages. There was a strong positive association between the use of social alcohol sources and past-30-day drinking behaviors. The findings suggest that reducing the availability of direct underage alcoholic-beverage purchases from retail outlets may have only a modest effect on underage drinking. Social sources of alcoholic beverages are apparently much more important than commercial sources. Research on the effects of strategies to reduce social sources of drinking for underage youth is limited. In 2005, alcohol-beverage purchase surveys were conducted at 403 off-premise licensed retail establishments in 43 Oregon school districts. A survey was also administered to 3,332 11th graders in these districts. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between the school district alcohol sales rate and students' use of commercial and social alcohol sources, perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, past-30-day alcohol use, and heavy drinking. 3 tables, 1 figure, and 16 references

NCJ 219709
Toni Terling Watt; Jesse McCoy Rogers
Factors Contributing to Differences in Substance Use Among Black and White Adolescents
Youth & Society
Volume:39 Issue:1 Dated:September 2007 Pages:54 to 74

Utilizing the Adolescent Health Survey (ADD Health), this study examined how substance use among adolescents varied for Whites and African-Americans and identified the specific compositional characteristics and process differences that accounted for variations in use rates. The study confirms existing research findings that alcohol use is lower for African-Americans relative to White adolescents and for males and females. However, it did not find differences for African-Americans and Whites on the incidence of heavy drinking and drug use. In addition, the results revealed that the effects of family and peers on alcohol use were different for African-American and White youth. African-American females are less influenced than White females by friends who drink. African-American females are less influenced by peers, and African-American males are more influenced by supportive families than are Whites. Overall, differences in alcohol use are almost entirely explained by differences in process, in particular, the influence of peers and the family. Current research shows that the relationship between race and/or ethnicity and substance use is complex. This study used the Add Health Survey, a large school-based study of the health-related behaviors of adolescents in grades 7 to 12, to examine alcohol and drug used by race and/or ethnicity and to explore how differences in composition and process might produce differences in use. Tables, references

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