Wednesday, October 10, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, Criminal Justice and Behavior Articles


NCJ 219756
J. Stephen Wormith; Richard Althouse; Mark Simpson; Lorraine R. Reitzel; Thomas J. Fagan; Robert D. Morgan
Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Offenders: The Current Landscape and Some Future Directions for Correctional Psychology
Criminal Justice and Behavior
Volume:34 Issue:7 Dated:July 2007 Pages:879 to 892

This article offers a review of the effectiveness of correctional treatment for adult offenders and specialized treatment for substance abuse offenders and sexual offenders and presents directions for future research on correctional treatment. Following the empirically guided research review on correctional treatment effectiveness, the authors call for greater collaboration between correctional practitioners and researchers. The clinical demands of offender treatment on practitioners impede their rigorous evaluation of current treatment models and, as such, evaluations may be better left to researchers. On the other hand, researchers lack access and valuable insights regarding prison life. Together, practitioners involved in offender treatment and researchers can implement treatment-outcome evaluations that are not overly burdensome. Researchers are cautioned to avoid a sole focus on recidivism and instead conduct multiple source assessments that include behavioral assessments, functional domain assessments, collateral assessments, and quality of care assessments. In making this argument, the authors review the treatment literature on offender rehabilitation and identify the general principles of offender intervention, including risk, need, and responsivity. The common themes of cognitive-behavioral interventions and the importance of treatment integrity emerged throughout the research review. While reviewing the research literature on offender rehabilitation, the authors pose pressing questions regarding the nuances of effective service delivery, such as client motivation. Notes, references

NCJ 219757
Robert K. Ax; Thomas J. Fagan; Philip R. Magaletta; Robert D. Morgan; David Nussbaum; Thomas W. White
Innovations in Correctional Assessment and Treatment
Criminal Justice and Behavior
Volume:34 Issue:7 Dated:July 2007 Pages:893 to 905

This article discusses the main issues and innovations in the areas of correctional assessment and treatment. The main argument emerging from this review of correctional assessment and treatment is that the need for innovative and cost-effective assessment and treatment for offenders has never been greater. There are increasing numbers of seriously mentally ill individuals and substance addicted individuals incarcerated around the country at the same time that resources are scarce and are increasingly being diverted to other areas of the criminal justice system. However, the field of correctional psychology is moving toward a biopsychosocial understanding of human behavior that will transform the role of psychologists and is expected to guide improvements in correctional assessment, treatment, and research. Specific areas of interest for correctional mental health care that are expected to be highlighted in coming years include: dimensional assessment, suicide risk assessment, neuropsychological factors involved with chronic maladaptive behavior, prescriptive authority for psychologists, and telehealth. The effectiveness of correctional psychologists’ work will become increasingly tied to outcome research on a broad range of interventions. However, the degree of impact that psychologists will have in the near future will depend largely on their ability to promote the benefits of their services to the correctional field. References

NCJ 219759
Carl B. Clements; Richard Althouse; Robert K. Ax; Phillip R. Magaletta; Thomas J. Fagan; J. Stephen Wormith
Systemic Issues and Correctional Outcomes: Expanding the Scope of Correctional Psychology
Criminal Justice and Behavior
Volume:34 Issue:7 Dated:July 2007 Pages:919 to 932

This article discusses several systemic issues that impact the work of correctional psychologists and impede their effectiveness. Four main context issues impacting the work of correctional psychologists are discussed: (1) the utility of a systems perspective in corrections; (2) the problem of unintended consequences; (3) the inadequately researched use of special housing; and (4) the need to assess the efficacy of correctional systems and programs. For each of these four areas, the nature and scope of the issues are described followed by a suggested research agenda. In terms of the utility of a systems perspective in corrections, the authors point out that criminal justice solutions can actually create more crime and that larger social and economic systems can play a similar role in impacting crime rates. As such, a policy-and-outcomes research agenda is suggested. In terms of unintended consequences, it is argued that criminal justice practices and the prison environment can actually create mental health problems among inmates and can also create problems for communities and families who were once dependent on incarcerated individuals. A research agenda for reducing unintended consequences is offered, which includes the implementation of empirically supported criminal justice practices and the evaluation of the impact of criminal justice policies on inmates and the community. The authors also call for increased research on the use of special housing for inmates, which largely implies the use of segregation, which may have unintended outcomes on offender psychological and social functioning. Finally, a general assessment of correctional settings is called for to ensure that a fair and humane environment has been created and to provide feedback to administrators, politicians, and citizens. In addition, the authors argue that the mission of correctional psychologists should include macro-level systems issues since they are inherent to the work conducted within correctional settings. References

NCJ 219760
Phillip R. Magaletta; Robert D. Morgan; Lorraine R. Reitzel; Christopher A. Innes
Toward the One: Strengthening Behavioral Sciences Research in Corrections
Criminal Justice and Behavior
Volume:34 Issue:7 Dated:July 2007 Pages:933 to 944

This article discusses how to move behavioral science research in corrections toward the ideal of integration and collaboration. The main argument is that in order to move behavioral science research in corrections to the next level of organization, several strategies are required, including the building of research infrastructures into correctional systems, the development of collaborative training and models of idea sharing between researchers and practitioners, and the integration of different streams of research and knowledge. In making this argument, the authors contend that several factors inherent to conducting research have developed and maintained a fragmented state of knowledge concerning behavioral sciences research in corrections, which has worked to effectively limit the full potential of the practice of correctional psychology. The factors limiting behavioral science research in corrections are identified and described: (1) public health and public safety systems have different missions, which influence the role of knowledge generation; (2) the impetus for behavioral science research in corrections lies outside of the correctional system; (3) within corrections, “research” does not refer to a core academic discipline and “practice” does not refer to a core profession; and (4) streams of research literature in this area run parallel to one another but are rarely integrated. The current challenge for behavioral science research in corrections, then, is to develop models of research that compensate for a long history of isolation and fragmentation. Note, references

No comments: