Sunday, October 07, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, October 7, 2007


NCJ 219737
Lauren Bennett Cattaneo; Margaret E. Bell; Lisa A. Goodman; Mary Ann Dutton
Intimate Partner Violence Victims' Accuracy in Assessing Their Risk of Re-abuse
Journal of Family Violence
Volume:22 Issue:6 Dated:August 2007 Pages:429 to 440

Using four categories of accuracy--true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative--this study examined how accurately victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were able to assess their risk for repeat victimization, along with the identification of potential predictors of accuracy. Study findings supported previous research in determining that IPV victims were able to assess their risk of repeat abuse at a level greater than chance. Victims were equally skilled in predicting a recurrence of abuse as they were in predicting no repeat of the abuse. They were also equally likely to be wrong through an overestimation of their risk as they were in an underestimation of their risk of a recurrence of abuse. Significant and marginally significant predictors of the accuracy of categories were the history of violence with the current and former partners, level of the abusers' substance use, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and the recency of the violence. Among the stronger findings were the connection between level of stalking and true positives and between substance use and false negatives. The findings suggest that victim assessments of risk for repeat abuse have significant potential for informing treatment practice. The study used data collected in the first 18 months of a 4 1/2 year longitudinal study of 406 IPV victims who sought help from shelters, civil court, and/or criminal court in a mid-Atlantic city. Of this sample, 246 rated the likelihood that they would experience a repeat of physical abuse in the coming year. Eighteen months later they reported on whether predicted risks had been realized. 6 tables and 45 references

NCJ 219732
Shelby A. Kaura; Brenda J. Lohman
Dating Violence Victimization, Relationship Satisfaction, Mental Health Problems, and Acceptability of Violence: A Comparison of Men and Women
Journal of Family Violence
Volume:22 Issue:6 Dated:August 2007 Pages:367 to 381

Using a sample of 155 male and 417 female college students, this study examined the associations among dating violence victimization, satisfaction with the relationship, mental health problems, and the acceptability of violence. Study participants reported significant levels of dating violence victimization, but the levels were still relatively low (28.76 for the total sample). No significant gender differences in dating violence victimization were reported; however, women reported greater satisfaction with the dating relationship and higher levels of depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms compared with male victims. Men reported higher acceptability levels for both male-to-female violence and female-to-male violence than women. The majority of the victimization reported was minor (just over 70 percent), with the most commonly reported act being shouted at or insulted, or being pushed or grabbed by the partner. Less than 1 percent of the sample reported more severe violence. The findings do not infer any causality among the variables examined, only that dating violence victimization, relationship satisfaction, and mental health problems are related. All of the participants were in a current or had been in a previous heterosexual dating relationship. Students were administered a 137-item survey that measured dating violence victimization, mental health problems, satisfaction with the dating relationship, the acceptability of violence, and demographics. 4 tables, 4 figures, and 57 references

NCJ 219730
Brenda J. Benson; Carol L. Gohm; Alan M. Gross
College Women and Sexual Assault: The Role of Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies
Journal of Family Violence
Volume:22 Issue:6 Dated:August 2007 Pages:341 to 351

This study examined the associations among alcoholic beverage consumption, expectancies regarding the influence of alcohol on sexual behavior, and sexual assaults of women college students. Twenty-one percent of the 350 women involved in the study had been victims of an attempted rape, and 13 percent had been victims of completed rape. Women with a history of attempted rape and rape reported drinking significantly more alcohol on average compared with women who had no history of sexual assault. This finding is consistent with other research that found rape completion is positively linked with victim alcohol consumption at the time of the assault (Abbey et al., 2003). Increased intoxication has been associated with decreases in women's ability to communicate assertively and to use physical defenses. The study also found that higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with the women's beliefs that alcohol enhances sex drive, sexual affect, and vulnerability to sexual coercion. It is possible that a woman who believes that alcohol will reduce her anxiety, improve her sex drive, and/or enhance a sexual experience may be motivated to drink alcohol in an attempt to achieve these positive effects, thus leading to increased alcohol consumption. At higher levels of alcohol consumption, women who endorsed high vulnerability to sexual coercion experienced more severe victimization. Implications of these findings are discussed. The women completed measures of sexual behaviors, sexual victimization experiences, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and drinking habits. Based on participants' responses, women were categorized as having experienced no sexual assault, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, attempted rape, and rape. 3 tables, 1 figure, and 45 references

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