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Lesley Williams Reid Ph.D. ; Kirk W. Elifson Ph.D. ; Claire E. Sterk Ph.D.
Hug Drug or Thug Drug?: Ecstasy Use and Aggressive Behavior
Violence and Victims Volume:22 Issue:1 Dated:2007 Pages:104 to 119
This study examined the effects of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine) (MDMA) on aggressive and violent behavior in a sample of active users. The study found that those with a higher prevalence of lifetime ecstasy use exhibited higher levels of aggressive and violent behavior. The more ecstasy a person had used in his/her lifetime, the greater variety of violent acts he/she committed. The chances of committing more types of violent acts in the past year increased almost linearly with the number of ecstasy pills ever used. The reverse was true for the odds of committing no violent acts in the past year. Ecstasy use had little effect on the level of aggression among individuals with low self-control; however, the effect of ecstasy on aggression was pronounced for those with high self-control, to the extent that those with high self-control were more aggressive than those with low self-control. Apparently, a high level of ecstasy use correlated with more aggression than might be attributable to any innate propensity for aggression. Although clinical studies have established a link between ecstasy and aggression, this is the first study to examine the presence of this link in actual behavioral outcomes. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence that undermines ecstasy's reputation as a safe drug. Data were collected from 260 ecstasy users in Atlanta, GA. Data analysis examined the likelihood of a user's engaging in aggressive behavior, controlling for key predictors of aggression independent of ecstasy use. 4 tables, 2 figures, and 63 references
Brian K. Payne ; Randy R. Gainey ; Crystal S. Carey
All in the Family: Gender, Family Crimes, and Later Criminality
Women & Criminal Justice Volume:16 Issue:4 Dated:2005 Pages:73 to 89
This study examined how male and female offenders’ experiences with family violence and prior family offending related to one another. The results of the study suggests that the criminogenic aspects of child maltreatment, broadly defined in this context to include child abuse and exposure to substance abuse, were more marked for female offenders than for male offenders. Female offenders were more likely than male offenders to have reported experiencing each type of maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse) except for neglect. However, the relationship between abuse type and offense type was virtually nonexistent. This suggests that maltreatment does not predict a specific type of offending; rather, maltreatment may lead to a variety of types of misconduct. A large body of research supports the finding that exposure to violence and abuse early in one’s life influences adult criminality. However, very little research has examined whether female and male offenders’ histories of violence and abuse are comparable or whether abuse type related to later offending. Using three separate procedures, this study examined the role of child abuse and exposure to substance abuse in later offending among a sample of female and male offenders. References