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Correctional Experiences of Youth in Adult and Juvenile Prisons
Justice Quarterly Volume:24 Issue:2 Dated:June 2007 Pages:247 to 270
Analyzing data from interviews with inmates, this study examined the correctional experiences of young men incarcerated through the adult criminal court. The results suggest that the two facility types: adult correctional facilities and juvenile correctional facilities do indeed differ from one another but in complex ways. The juvenile facilities offer better access to counseling and treatment services than adult facilities. Adult facility respondents gave more favorable ratings to availability of institutional services. Juvenile facilities are more likely to positively assess staff-inmate interaction. According to the reports of inmates, adult facilities fail to foster positive staff-inmate interaction. With lower inmate-to-staff ratios and a greater emphasis on counseling by each staff member than in adult facilities, juvenile facilities might indeed create more therapeutic environments when it comes to individual interactions between inmates and staff. However, according to inmates, juvenile facilities seem to do worse at providing access to a variety of institutional services than adult facilities. In addition, reported experiences of young adults will be similar across these two types of facilities due to security needs and other commonalities of correctional facilities. The results suggest that correctional experiences of inmates in juvenile institutions and adult institutions are substantially different from one another. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of offenders younger than 18 have been prosecuted and punished in criminal court rather than juvenile court. A long-term consequence of this practice is that States increasingly rely on adult jails and prisons to house violent adolescent offenders. To address the question of whether the use of juvenile facilities for transferred youth allows for different correctional experience than in adult facilities, this study analyzed data from interviews with staff and incarcerated young adults in two types of correctional facilities within a large Northeastern State: facilities operated by the State’s children’s services bureau, and department of corrections facilities. Tables, references and appendixes A-B
Kathleen A. Kendall-Tackett
Inflammation, Cardiovascular Disease, and Metabolic Syndrome as Sequelae of Violence Against Women: The Role of Depression, Hostility, and Sleep Disturbance
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse Volume:8 Issue:2 Dated:April 2007 Pages:117 to 126
This research review examines how three harms caused by violence against women--depression, hostility, and sleep disturbance--can increase the risk of inflammation, cariovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Depression, hostility, and sleep disturbance should be evaluated for all women who have experienced violence. Each of these effects should be addressed in treatment, since reduction in symptoms will improve overall health. Research on violence against women should include measures to enhance the immune system, especially treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Depression is one of the most common harms to victims of abuse and violence. Depression in turn apparently suppresses the immune system and has been linked to coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, chronic pain syndromes, premature aging, and even Alzheimer's disease. Women victims of violence and abuse also tend to develop a hostile view of the world. They bring mistrust to their relationships, along with suspiciousness, cynicism about human nature, and a tendency to interpret the actions of others as aggressive. A hostile worldview and associated strife in intimate relationships increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. These conditions can lead to premature mortality in abuse survivors who have a hostile worldview. At least two studies found that women were particularly susceptible to these adverse health effects. Disturbed sleep is frequently a consequence for women who have experienced abuse and violence. Sleep disturbance can increase the effects of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, which can increase health problems and decrease quality of life. 52 references