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Deborah South Richardson; Georgina S. Hammock
Social Context of Human Aggression: Are We Paying Too Much Attention to Gender?
Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal Volume:12 Issue:4 Dated:July-August 2007 Pages:417 to 426
This article reviews the research literature concerning gender and aggression and proposes that the emphasis on gender effects in human aggression is misplaced. The main conclusion is that gender has a relatively weak effect on aggression and largely that the effect of gender depends on the social context. The role of gender in aggressive behavior can be better explained through a focus on the context in which the aggression occurs. Other findings indicate that: (1) gender roles are more predictive of aggression than is gender; (2) national origin is a better predictor of self-presentation concerns associated with the use of aggression than is gender; (3) the effect of gender depends on the type of aggression; (4) gender helps to define the nature of relationships and the type of relationship is a predictor of the type of aggression; and (5) while gender differences in the use of psychological aggression are not significant, males and females appear to differ in their motivation for engaging in psychological aggression. The authors thus claim that focusing purely on gender does not completely explain the use of aggression and that gender is likely to be meaningful only within particular social or cultural contexts. In reviewing the relevant research literature, the authors focused on two main issues: (1) how the broad social context affected male and female aggressive responding, and (2) how the immediate context of the relationship between two people affected the forms or extent of their aggressive behavior. In particular, the review focused on: (1) gender roles versus actual gender as predictors of aggression; (2) gender differences in direct and indirect use of aggression; (3) aggression in the context of interpersonal relationships; and (4) gender effects in psychological aggression. References
Job Searching with a History of Drugs and Crime
Howard Journal of Criminal Justice Volume:46 Issue:2 Dated:May 2007 Pages:162 to 175
This study explored the experiences of offenders with histories of substance misuse in relation to job searching in Scotland, as well as their aspirations for future work and self-employment. Results of the study confirmed previous findings that job searching with a history of drugs and crime presents a myriad of individual, institutional, and labor market barriers to securing and sustaining paid work. The participants expressed that employment was a critical component of their drug abuse recovery and most participants considered themselves ready for steady employment. Most participants had worked previously, had vocational qualifications, and were undertaking unpaid work as part of their community sentence. Most participants believed that their employability was limited by employer discrimination. As a result, many delayed disclosure of their criminal history or denied it to their prospective employers. The findings suggest that some employers are discriminating against prospective employees with criminal and drug pasts. Policy measures designed to decrease the perceived risk for employers, such as state-guaranteed insurance, may help alleviate employer reluctance. Follow-up research should focus on a multisite design capable of making comparisons by gender, age, and ethnicity. Participants were 27 men and 2 women who were involved with court orders in Scotland from June to August 2001. Participants, who were purposively recruited using criminal justice social workers in two local authority areas in Scotland, completed group interviews that focused on work experiences, job searching experiences, job-readiness, aspirations, and self-employment. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for emerging themes. Table, note, references
Lori A. Koenig
Financial Literacy Curriculum: The Effect on Offender Money Management Skills
Journal of Correctional Education Volume:58 Issue:1 Dated:March 2007 Pages:43 to 56
This article presents the development of course on personal money management for correctional populations and reports on preliminary outcome data. Posttest results indicated a moderate improvement in financial knowledge among participants. Pretest financial knowledge, which was measured prior to the beginning of the course, was 66 percent while posttest financial knowledge following completion of the course rose to 74 percent. Scores improved the most in the areas of credit cards, insurance, and retirement. However, participant knowledge dropped slightly on the budgeting questions and participants showed only marginal improvement in the areas of savings and housing. The author began by conducting a literature review of existing money management curriculum. Course materials were pulled from different curriculum programs and Web sites offering financial lesson plans. Course curriculum focused on budgeting, credit, credit cards, consumer privacy, saving and investing, buying a home, renting, insurance, cars, interest, payroll, and trouble. Seventeen inmates at a medium-security facility volunteered to participate in the course. A pretest and posttest were administered to provide information about program effectiveness. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Data were also used to create tables and queries using Microsoft Access. Future research will use the information gathered in this evaluation to revise the curriculum for the financial literacy course for correctional populations. References, appendixes, tables