Sunday, November 25, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, November 25, 2007


NCJ 220293
Jessica L. Hart; Siobhan K. O'Toole; Jana L. Price-Sharps; Thomas W. Shaffer
Risk and Protective Factors of Violent Juvenile Offending: An Examination of Gender Differences
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice
Volume:5 Issue:4 Dated:October 2007 Pages:367 to 384

This research study focused on the makeup of violent juvenile offenders in order to have effective intervention and preventive programs. This research study found that tailored programs might decrease the number of violent juvenile offenders. The findings supported previous research studies on the protective effects of having a high GPA, not having an aggressive response to shame, not using aggression and violence with feelings of power and safety, having a caring adult in the community, and parental demands. The study supports the fact that strong risk factors are drugs use, alcohol use, and learning difficulties. The study did not support that marital conflict was a risk factor. The study also found that females had significantly more risk factors than males. The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of adolescent delinquency and violent behavior looking at both protective and risk factors. The hypothesis was that the more protective factors an adolescent had verses the fewer number of risk factors, then he or she would be less likely to become involved in delinquent or violent behavior. The research study was conducted by using a self-report survey of 124 participants. The participants were between the ages of 14 and 18, from four locations in central California, 53.8 percent were male and 46.8 percent were female. Tables, references

NCJ 220296
James Eugene Tille; John Creighton Rose
Emotional and Behavioral Problems of 13-to-18-Year-Old Incarcerated Female First-Time Offenders and Recidivists
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice
Volume:5 Issue:4 Dated:October 2007 Pages:426 to 435

This research study compared the emotional and behavioral problems of female first-time offenders between the ages of 13-to-18 to that of recidivists. The study found that adolescent female recidivists had significantly more emotional and behavioral problems than the first-time adolescent offenders. The study also showed that the recidivist female had an unstable lifestyle and a less dependable family situation. The data found supports the need for adequate mental health staffing and services in the juvenile justice system to allow for better intervention or coordination of resources to aid first-time offenders and recidivists. The study also found that the percentages needing mental health medications were identical for first-time offenders and recidivists, nearly 50 percent of recidivists were not taking mental health medications at the time of incarceration. Mental health workers should try to lessen the stigma of taking mental health medications. Areas of focus to aid in reducing recidivism include effective family living situations, effective anger processing, reduction of drug and alcohol use, and regular school attendance. The study used the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory, Version Two (MAYSI-2) and demographic data. The study was conducted between June 7 and October 26, 2004. Survey packets were distributed for first-time offenders (n=38), and recidivists (n=78) were used for the exploratory Pierce County, Washington survey. Tables, references

NCJ 220327
N. Zoe Hilton; Grant T. Harris; Marnie E. Rice
Effect of Arrest on Wife Assault Recidivism: Controlling for Pre-Arrest Risk
Criminal Justice and Behavior
Volume:34 Issue:10 Dated:October 2007 Pages:1334 to 1344

This study examined the effect of arrest for assault on one's wife on reoffending, controlling for prearrest actuarial risk of reoffending, which was measured retrospectively and independently of the arrest decision, using the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA). The study found that arrested perpetrators of assaults on their wives were more likely to reoffend, but this effect was attributable to prearrest differences in perpetrators' risk of reoffending. There was no evidence that arrest for wife assault increased reoffending at any level of risk. The findings suggest that officers tended to arrest higher risk cases based on the seriousness of the offense as measured by victim injury. The study did not measure whether offenders who were not arrested but might have had a high risk for reoffending might have reoffended. Despite the fact that the jurisdiction studied had an official presumptive arrest policy for domestic violence, police officers arrested only approximately half of the perpetrators. Survival analyses indicated that arrest might have delayed reoffending among relatively low-risk cases. This delay effect might be expanded by providing police with an actuarial tool for a more accurate field assessment of an offender's risk for reoffending. As part of a larger study of wife-assault reoffending, this study coded information on 589 men identified in police records as perpetrators of a physical assault on a current or former wife or common-law wife, as well as a credible threat of death against such a victim with a weapon in her presence. The incident closest to the end of 1996 was selected as the index assault. Researchers coded all information in the police reports, including items contained in the ODARA, police response, characteristics of the perpetrator and victim as well as their relationship, and variables previously linked with arrest decisions. 1 table, 1 figure, and 52 references

No comments: