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James M. Byrne; Albert R. Roberts
New Directions in Offender Typology Design, Development, and Implementation: Can we Balance Risk, Treatment and Control?
Aggression and Violent Behavior Volume:12 Issue:5 Dated:September-October 2007 Pages:483 to 492
This article provides a “state of the art” discussion of the key issues that must be addressed by policymakers, practitioners, and the public in the design, development, and implementation of typologies for targeted groups of offenders (murderers, sex offenders, batterers, violent prisoners, and violent mentally ill offenders). This literature review suggests several new directions in providing the critical linkage across typologies that classify offenders for risk, treatment, and control. There is no “one-stop shopping” offender typology available that can identify the risk level, targeted treatment protocols, and control levels of the offender groups examined: murderers, sex offenders, batterers, violent prisoners, and violent mentally ill offenders. Further research is desperately needed to establish the links between offender risk level, offender treatment needs, and offender control requirements for each of these offender groups. This article provides a “state of the art” discussion of key issues that must be addressed in the design, development, and implementation of typologies for each of these targeted groups of offenders. An assessment is conducted of the lessons learned from the great prison classification experiment. This is followed by an assessment of new directions in the development of typologies of offenders and the communities in which offenders reside, based on the simple notion that offender change--not offender control--needs to be the primary focus of the next generation of correctional classification systems. References
Albert R. Roberts; Kristen M. Zgoba; Shahid M. Shahidullah
Recidivism Among Four Types of Homicide Offenders: An Exploratory Analysis of 336 Homicide Offenders in New Jersey
Aggression and Violent Behavior Volume:12 Issue:5 Dated:September-October 2007 Pages:493 to 507
A number of homicide offenders released between the years 1990 and 2000 from the New Jersey Department of Corrections were identified and followed for a minimum of 5 years to determine if incarcerated homicide offenders who had no criminal histories prior to their homicide conviction recidivated less and which specific variables correlated with recidivism. As a result of the analysis, a new four-fold typology of homicide offenders was conceptualized: (1) homicide that was precipitated by a general altercation or argument, (2) homicide during the commission of a felony, (3) domestic violence-related homicide, and (4) a homicide after an accident. In summary, none of the 336 homicide offenders committed another murder. However, what was found was the highest recidivism for new violent or drug crimes occurred in the felony homicide group, followed by the altercation precipitated homicide offenders (27 percent). Despite a great deal of information on various types of offenders, there is only limited longitudinal research on the offending patterns, typologies, and recidivism of different types of homicide perpetrators. A random sample of 336 homicide offenders who were released between the years 1990 and 2000 from the New Jersey Department of Corrections were identified and followed for a minimum of 5 years. These offenders were tracked to determine if incarcerated homicide offenders who had no criminal histories prior to their homicide conviction recidivated less. Figures, tables, references
Gina Robertiello; Karen J. Terry
Can We Profile Sex Offenders?: A Review of Sex Offender Typologies
Aggression and Violent Behavior Volume:12 Issue:5 Dated:September-October 2007 Pages:508 to 518
This article provides a summary of the existing typologies of rapists, child molesters, female sex offenders, juvenile sex offenders, and cyber sex offenders. Typologies can be a useful investigative, assessment or treatment tool; however, they must be considered with caution. Typologies are not mutually exclusive, as sex offenders do not always specialize in a particular type of behavior. The best way in which to understand typologies of sex offenders is as a continuum rather than distinct, unique categories. These typologies are important because sex offenders with certain characteristics are more likely than others to recidivate. In this outline of the development of sex offender typologies over the last quarter century, the following typologies were found: (1) the most common type of rapist is one who is motivated by power and control; (2) child molesters with a high fixation level tend to have the highest level of deviant sexual arousal and the greatest numbers of victims; (3) compared to male sex offenders, female offenders are less likely to use force, are more likely to initiate their behavior at an earlier age than male offenders, and are more likely to commit their offense with others; (4) juveniles who victimize peers and adults often commit sexual offenses in conjunction with other criminal behavior; and (5) many cyber sex offenders have occupations that give them direct or indirect work with children, such as teachers, law enforcement officers, and religious leaders. Tables, references