Wednesday, October 24, 2007

More NCJRS Abstacts, October 24, 2007


NCJ 219914
Michael D. Reisig; William D. Bales; Carter Hay; Xia Wang
Effect of Racial Inequality on Black Male Recidivism
Justice Quarterly
Volume:24 Issue:3 Dated:September 2007 Pages:408 to 434

In testing two hypotheses on racial inequality and African-American male recidivism, this study examined whether recidivism rates were highest among African-American ex-inmates who were released to areas with higher levels of racial inequality. In following a large cohort of males released from Florida prisons, it was observed that racial inequality in counties where these ex-inmates were released impacted recidivism among African-American males. A significant direct effect of racial inequality on reconviction was observed. It was also found that racial inequality amplified the effects of criminal history on reconviction. With study limitations identified, this research extends prior theory and research by empirically linking racial inequality to African-American male recidivism. Macrostructural opportunity theorists posit that the unequal distribution of economic resources across racial groups promotes animosities among disadvantaged minorities, disrupts community integration, and fosters criminal activity. Guided by this framework, this paper hypothesizes that African-American ex-prisoners who reenter communities with high levels of racial inequality are more likely to commit new crimes. Support for this argument is found for a large group of males (N=34,868) released from State prisons to 62 counties in Florida over a 2-year period. Tables, figures, appendixes A-C, and references

NCJ 219970
Frederick Muench; Jon Morgenstern; Eric Hollander; Thomas Irwin; Ann O'Leary; Jeffrey T. Parsons; Milton L. Wainberg; Betty Lai
Consequences of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: The Preliminary Reliability and Validity of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Consequences Scale
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity
Volume:44 Issue:3 Dated:2007 Pages:207 to 220

This exploratory study examined the psychometric properties, descriptive features, and ability to detect change over time of a measure designed to assess the consequences of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) in 34 gay and bisexual men enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled medication trial that tested the effectiveness of a treatment program. The 21-item Compulsive Sexual Behavior Consequences Scale (CSBCS) detected changes in symptoms over the course of the 12-week period. Items related to intimate relationships were most resistant to change, and items related to intrapersonal conflict and impulse control were most likely to change. There were no differences in the reduction of consequences between medication and placebo groups. Consequences of CSB correlated only moderately with frequency measures which suggest that these constructs should be examined separately. The findings suggest that measuring the consequences of CSB can reveal important clues about the personal domains most affected by CSB, identify those domains that are resistant to change, and aid in individualized treatment planning. Study data were obtained during a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study that assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of citalopram during a 12-week treatment program for 28 outpatient subjects with CSB. The primary outcome measure was the CSBCS, which was adapted from the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences. A second measure, the Primary Appraisal Measure: Compulsive Sexual Behavior, was adapted from the Drug and Alcohol Primary Appraisal measure. 3 tables and 27 references

NCJ 219969
Martin Lloyd; Nancy C. Raymond; Michael H. Miner; Eli Coleman
Borderline Personality: Traits in Individuals With Compulsive Sexual Behavior
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity
Volume:14 Issue:3 Dated:2007 Pages:187 to 206

This review of the medical charts of 85 patients diagnosed with compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) focused on the presence of symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD), which has the common symptoms of instability in relationships and the need for multiple sex partners or multiple relationships. The study found that although a substantial portion of the sample showed considerable impulsivity, there was not sufficient evidence of the unstable and intense interpersonal relationships in the records of the majority of the 85 CSB subjects. The BPD symptoms most often found in the sample were impulsivity and dysphoria (an abnormal feeling of anxiety and discontent). Otherwise, the data did not indicate a relationship between CSB and BPD; however, the data did suggest some possibilities regarding factors in CSB. CSB is typically associated with impulsivity, which in turn can underlie habitual aggression and antisocial acting-out behaviors. The findings showed that 42.4 percent of the sample showed potentially dangerous impulsivity in at least two areas: risky sexual behavior and a general inability to control potentially harmful behaviors. The impulsive behavior tends to be preceded by increasing tension or arousal, followed by pleasure, gratification, or relief. Still, there was no evidence of potentially dangerous impulsivity in multiple areas for over half of the individuals in the sample. This suggests multiple types of CSB or a range of levels of uncontrolled compulsive behavior. There may be two subgroups within CSB, one that is more closely linked with compulsive acting-out behaviors and one that is more closely linked to anxiety and mood disorders that do not require risky sexual or antisocial behaviors for gratification or relief. 3 tables, 27 references, and appendix A

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