Sunday, October 14, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, Employment and Offender Articles, Part Uno


NCJ 219931
Dixie J. Koo; Dale D. Chitwood; Jesus Sanchez
Factors for Employment: A Case-Control Study of Fully Employed and Unemployed Heroin Users
Substance Use & Misuse
Volume:42 Issue:7 Dated:2007 Pages:1035 to 1054

This study characterized fully employed and unemployed regular heroin users and identified independent demographic, human and social capital, and drug use characteristics associated with full employment. The study concludes that treatment efforts must include employment training in order to help heroin users obtain full employment and that the chances of recovery are far better for those who acquire skills and qualifications needed in higher occupation. Finding show that active heroin users seldom hold full-time employment and for those users who are employed the majority hold low level semi-skilled and unskilled types of jobs. Therefore, employment training is essential for transitioning to a conventional lifestyle. Additionally, human and social capitals of active heroin users are important assets for sustaining employment. Persons with human and social capital resources were more likely to be fully employed and less likely to use other drugs than unemployed users. Human capital resources such as education and stable living conditions help provide knowledge, skills, and individual social stability necessary for obtaining and sustaining full-time employment. Social capital refers to connections or social ties among individuals and societal institutions where the norms enable people to develop relationships, support networks and social obligations to one another. The study sample consisted of two groups of heroin users (n=488) from multiple communities in south Florida between July 1997 and February 2000. Individuals who had been employed in full-time jobs for at least the last 30 days were selected as cases (n=122) and users who had been unemployed for the last 30 days were selected as controls (n=366). Various multivariate logistic models were used for the study. Tables, references

NCJ 219932
Clyde B. McCoy; Mary Comerford; Lisa R. Metsch
Employment Among Chronic Drug Users at Baseline and 6-Month Follow-Up
Substance Use & Misuse
Volume:42 Issue:7 Dated:2007 Pages:1055 to 1067

This study looks at employment/unemployment among chronic drug users (CDUs). The study findings showed that unemployment is a serious problem among out-of-treatment CDUs. Out-of-treatment substance users are at a disadvantage in obtaining and maintaining employment due to the lack of assistance programs. At the baseline and at 6-month followup, the majority of the CDUs were unemployed in the prior month. Findings showed that over 68 percent of the sample were unemployed at baseline; over 67 percent were unemployed at 6-month followup; only 15 percent were employed at both time periods; and one half were unemployed at both time periods. Some of the problems sited were the lack of job readiness and job skills. Training in the application process and what is expected of them from the employer is also needed. Women were less likely to experience consistent employment then men, because of childcare responsibilities. The study found that future research in the area of substance use and employed is still needed. The study consisted of 600 African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White men and women, 18 years or older who were residents of Miami-Dade County, FL. A base-line questionnaire included demographic information, employment history, drug use history, and questions on sexual risk behaviors. Tables, references

NCJ 219933
Laura Schmidt; Denise Zabkiewicz; Laurie Jacobs; Jim Wiley
Substance Abuse and Employment Among Welfare Mothers: From Welfare to Work and Back Again?
Substance Use & Misuse
Volume:42 Issue:7 Dated:2007 Pages:1069 to 1087

This article examines how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. The finding show that there are no significant differences in the quality or stability of the jobs obtained by women with substance use-related problems when compared to those without substance abuse-related problem. The jobs women obtained after leaving the welfare system were poorly paid and of short duration regardless of whether or not a substance use-related problem was present. Some factors such as education, work history, and family size consistently predicted transition from welfare to work and back again. The average work period for a welfare mother on average lasted 9 to 10 months. The study used Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers (n=419). The participants were first interviewed as they applied for aid in 2001 and were reinterviewed annually over a 4-year period. On average, the women were relatively young single parents with two or fewer children, had completed high school, had recent work experience, and most had received welfare at least once before. The study was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Tables, references, and appendix

NCJ 219934
Daniel J. O'Connell; Tihomir N. Enev; Steven S. Martin; James A. Inciardi
Working Toward Recovery: The Interplay of Past Treatment and Economic Status in Long-Term Outcomes for Drug-Involved Offenders
Substance Use & Misuse
Volume:42 Issue:7 Dated:2007 Pages:1089 to 1107

This study examined how therapeutic community-based treatment of drug user(s) during transition from prison may lower levels of substance use and increase the likelihood of a better economic outcome. Study findings suggest that improved well-being, as reflected by economic status, is more influential than shedding the stigma of being an addict in long-term recovery of drug addiction. Study results showed that decreased drug use led to improved economic status and that participants who spent more years in school had significantly higher incomes and better chances of being employed than their less educated counterparts. Additionally, results showed that higher economic status is positively and significantly related to self-esteem which is instrumental for long-term recovery. Data for the study were collected from 1992 through 1998 from the Delaware Department of Corrections as part of a research project funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Results were derived from 628 participants from the Key/Crest therapeutic community-based program who completed base-line and subsequent interviews and provided urine samples over a 42 month period. Tables, figure, glossary, and references

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