Thursday, October 11, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, Crime Prevention Articles


NCJ 219788
Rick Linden
Situational Crime Prevention: Its Role in Comprehensive Prevention Initiatives
Revue de l' IPC Review
Volume:1 Dated:March 2007 Pages:139 to 159

After briefly describing five types of crime prevention strategies, with "situational" prevention being one of them, this paper focuses on situational crime prevention as one facet of Canada's comprehensive crime prevention program. This paper recommends that Canada's vision of the National Crime Prevention Strategy expand to include situational approaches, that it become more reliant on evidence-based strategies, that it provide funding for research and development of situational strategies, and that it build the expertise and community capacity required for situational prevention. Situational crime prevention involves attempts to reduce the opportunity for crime by increasing the risks and decreasing the rewards of committing crime. Situational crime prevention is based in rational choice theory, which posits that crime is the result of deliberate choices made by offenders based on their calculation of the risks and rewards of these choices. A major difference between the situational approach and other crime prevention strategies is that the situational approach explicitly requires an analysis of specific crime situations and then develops prevention strategies and tactics appropriate for the circumstances. The analysis typically involves assessments of the characteristics of the potential victims or targets, offender characteristics, community characteristics (physical and social), timing of the offense, distinctive methods of committing crimes, location of the offense, and opportunity factors. Based on an analysis of these factors, situational crime prevention can involve hardening or controlling access to targets or the tools required to commit a crime; increasing the risks by increasing levels of formal/informal surveillance or guardianship; reduction in the rewards by identifying property in order to facilitate recovery by removing targets or by denying the benefits of crime; reducing provocations by controlling for peer pressure or by reducing frustration or conflict; and removing excuses by setting clear rules and limits. 38 references

NCJ 219789
Brandon C. Welsh
Science and Politics of Early Crime Prevention: The American Experience and Directions for Canada
Revue de l' IPC Review
Volume:1 Dated:March 2007 Pages:161 to 192

This paper examines what Canada should do in acting on current scientific evidence regarding early crime prevention, along with the political inaction on such evidence by U.S. policymakers. In the United States in recent years, a number of national scientific commissions on early childhood development and juvenile offending have examined some of this scientific evidence and identified the many benefits of early prevention programs. These commissions called for action to make early prevention a top government priority. Despite the efforts in this regard by national not-for-profit organizations, the U.S. Government has shown little interest in a national strategy that uses research evidence to implement effective early prevention programs for reducing delinquency and later offending. This paper reviews the effectiveness of early prevention programs that target three main categories of early risk factors for delinquency: individual, family, and environmental. Features of individual early prevention programming include preschool intellectual enrichment and child social skills training. Aspects of family prevention are parent education and parent management training. School and community prevention programs target environmental risk factors. A national strategy for mounting such programs involves the Federal Government's establishing of a permanent structure. In Canada, this agency is the National Crime Prevention Centre. This paper describes the functions of such an agency as well as prevention at the local level. Directions for Canada focus on a program of high-quality evaluation research for early prevention programming, funding decisions guided by evidence on what works best, and a program of research on incorporating evidence into policy and practice. 80 references and appended summary of evaluation research and assessment of research evidence

NCJ 219754
Sophie Kriven; Emma Ziersch
New Car Security and Shifting Vehicle Theft Patterns in Australia
Security Journal
Volume:20 Issue:2 Dated:2007 Pages:111 to 122

This study examined the effectiveness of engine immobilizers at decreasing vehicle thefts in Australia. Results indicated that thefts of new cars in Australia have decreased since July 2001, when all new passenger vehicles sold in the country were required to have standard engine immobilizers prior to sale. While the theft of new cars has decline, there is evidence that the theft of vehicles in Australia has shifted to older models, not fitted with engine immobilizers. The study and findings replicated a study undertaken in the United Kingdom by Brown and Thomas (1998), which also discovered that immobilizers were effective in reducing vehicle theft rates. The authors conclude that while engine immobilizers are effective at protecting newer vehicles from theft, other strategies need to be employed to protect older model vehicles, strategies such as all-over vehicle marking systems and public awareness campaigns. The data also pointed toward a shift to the theft of older vehicles lacking the engine immobilizers. Data on vehicle thefts in Australia were drawn from the National Comprehensive Auto-theft Research System (CARS) Project containing police data on all motor vehicle thefts and vehicle registration data from all Australian States and Territories. The analysis compared 2 calendar years--2000 (before immobilization implementation) and 2004 (after immobilization implementation)--in terms of theft rates. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Tables, figures, footnotes, references

NCJ 219814
Jeremy Warren; Elaine Hogard; Roger Ellis
"Safer Homes": An Evaluation of a Reorganization to Deal with Domestic Burglary Within a UK Police Force
Crime Prevention and Community Safety Volume:9 Issue:3 Dated:July 2007 Pages:167 to 178

This paper presents the results of an evaluative study of the Safer Homes initiative to improve performance regarding domestic burglary in a police force in the north of England. Three provisional conclusions were drawn from this study. First, the process of central refinement of best practice followed by the production of a best practice guide seems an effective way to generate standards that stimulate improved practice and allow for audit of practice. Second, the implementation of substantial organizational change does benefit from a short-term dedicated officer whose concerns must include sustainability of the program after the period of office. Lastly, it does seem that the reorganization in this particular initiative, based on the Good Practice Guide, did have an effect on not just the process of delivery but the stated outcomes and the positive perceptions of recipients and providers. The reduction of domestic burglary remains a government priority as it is one of a small number of serious crimes that can have significant and traumatic effects on victims, their friends, and families. The Association of Chief Police Officers commissioned the development of a National Good Practice and Tactical Options Guide which drew together examples of good practice from most of the 43 Home Office-funded police forces in the United Kingdom. The Good Practice Guide led directly to the Safer Homes project that is the focus of this paper. The main objective of the Safer Homes project was for improvement of service to victims of domestic burglary, to increase the level of sanctioned detections, to achieve a reduction in the number of domestic burglary incidents, and improve the relationship between crime reduction agencies. Figures, references

No comments: