Saturday, October 27, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, October 27, 2007


NCJ 220038
Cynthia Geppert; Michael P. Bogenschutz; William R. Miller
Development of a Bibliography on Religion, Spirituality and Addictions
Drug and Alcohol Review
Volume:26 Issue:4 Dated:July 2007 Pages:389 to 395

This study aimed to develop a comprehensive annotated public-domain bibliography on the literature on spirituality and addictions to facilitate future research and scholarship. Findings suggest that the belief that spirituality is important in recovery is consistent with findings to date, but the literature needs to continue to explore ways in which spiritual interventions may help to alleviate addiction and related suffering. General findings included an inverse relationship between religiosity and substance use/abuse, reduced use among those practicing meditation protective effects of 12-step involvement during recovery. A search was conducted using all citations listed in the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and ALTA Religion databases from 1941 to 2004 using the following search terms: substance abuse, substance dependence, addiction, religion, and spirituality. The citations were classified according to empirically derived categories. A total of 1,353 papers met the search parameters and were classified into 10 nonexclusive categories. Tables, references

NCJ 220037
Evelyn Harvey; Anthony Shakeshaft; Kate Hetherington; Claudia Sannibale; Richard P. Mattick
Efficacy of Diversion and Aftercare Strategies for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders: A Summary and Methodological Review of the Outcome Literature
Drug and Alcohol Review
Volume:26 Issue:4 Dated:July 2007 Pages:379 to 387

This study reviewed diversion and aftercare programs for drug-involved offenders. Results of the study found that the evaluation studies of diversion programs published in the last 10 years continue to be characterized by poor methodological quality and inadequate reporting of study details, and that there is opportunity to conduct evaluations in the area of aftercare that is not prison-based or postrelease. Twenty outcome studies were identified for review: 19 on diversion and 1 on aftercare. Although most studies were prospective, few reported on long-term outcomes following treatment. Detail was lacking in basic study characteristics, such as eligibility criteria and outcomes. All studies were conducted in the United States (n=79 percent) or Australia (n=21 percent). Total sample sizes ranged from 156 to 1,966 with a mean of 601 and a median of 399 participants per evaluation. Figure, table, references

NCJ 219897
Anne M. Dietrich; W. Carson Smiley; Claire Frederick
Roles of Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathy in Sexual Recidivism of Treated Sex Offenders
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma
Volume:14 Issue:3 Dated:2007 Pages:19 to 31

Using Survival Analysis, this study examined a sample of sex offenders completing the Intensive Treatment Program for Sexual Offenders (ITPSO) at the Correctional Service of Canada looking at psychopathy and childhood maltreatment history as potential predictors of recidivism. This study adds to the understanding of the relative influence of various forms of childhood maltreatment and neglect upon recidivism, and shows that having been placed in foster care as a child can influence recidivism. In this study, a history of childhood physical abuse predicts sexual recidivism, whereas violent recidivism is best predicted by a history of antisocial behaviors. Consistent with other studies, psychopathy per the Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R) did not predict sexual recidivism, and childhood sexual abuse was not related to sexual recidivism. Although the findings of the study show that the Intensive Treatment Program for Sexual Offenders (ITPSO) results in lower recidivism rates than those reported for untreated sex offenders, the evidence suggests that treatment approaches for incarcerated adult offenders could improve upon their effectiveness by incorporating specialized programs for dealing with childhood maltreatment. Sexual violence is a serious social problem, with wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and society as a whole. Sex offenders represent 25 percent of the total incarcerated population in Federal institutions in Canada. Treatment approaches for incarcerated sex offenders tend to focus on teaching skills to effectively manage their risk of reoffending in the community once released. In this study, different forms of childhood maltreatment are examined as potential predictors of sexual recidivism with a sample of 81 sex offenders who completed the ITPSO. In addition to childhood maltreatment histories, PCL-R ratings are also examined in terms of their potential predictive relationship to general, violent, and sexual recidivism of treated offenders. Figures, references

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