Friday, October 12, 2007

More NCJRS Abstracts, Sex Offender Edition, Part Uno


NCJ 219744
Jeffrey C. Sandler; Naomi J. Freeman
Typology of Female Sex Offenders: A Test of Vandiver and Kercher
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment
Volume:19 Issue:2 Dated:June 2007 Pages:73 to 89

This study attempted to verify the typologies of female sex offenders put forth by Vandiver and Kercher (2004). Results indicated six distinct types of female sex offenders that reinforced the importance of factors such as victim and offender ages in categorizing female sex offenders. The six typologies of female sex offenders, however, differed substantially from the typologies identified by Vandiver and Kercher (2004). The six types of female sex offenders identified in the current analysis were: (1) criminally-limited hebephiles; (2) criminally-prone hebephiles; (3) young adult child molesters; (4) high-risk chronic offenders; (5) older non-habitual offenders; and (6) homosexual child molesters. While the typologies differed from Vandiver and Kercher’s typologies, the findings generally support their research findings. The results also support the contention that female sex offenders are a heterogeneous group. Future research on the development of female sex offender typologies should test the impact of adding four variables to the research model: victim-offender relationship, male accomplice, psychological disorder, and abuse history. Participants were all female sex offenders (N=390) listed in the New York State sex offender registry as of August 2005. Data on offender demographics, offense characteristics, and victim information were drawn from the New York State sex offender registry. Data related to the arrest, conviction, disposition, and sentencing were drawn from the participant’s criminal history files. Data were analyzed using the same methods employed by Vandiver and Kercher (2004), which included the use of hierarchical loglinear modeling (HLM) and cluster analysis. Table, figure, references

NCJ 219745
Kevin L. Nunes; R. Karl Hanson; Phillip Firestone; Heather M. Moulden; David M. Greenberg; John M. Bradford
Denial Predicts Recidivism for Some Sexual Offenders
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment Volume:19 Issue:2 Dated:June 2007 Pages:91 to 105

This study explored the possibility of moderating variables in the relationship between denial and recidivism among adult male sexual offenders. Results indicated that the relationship between denial and sexual recidivism was moderated by risk but not by psychopathy. Denial was associated with increased sexual recidivism among low-risk offenders and with decreased recidivism among high-risk offenders. Post hoc analyses revealed that the risk factor most related to the interaction between denial and recidivism was “relationship to victims.” Among incest offenders, denial was associated with increased sexual recidivism while, on the other hand, denial played no part in the recidivism risk of sexual offenders who offended against unrelated individuals. The results thus suggest that denial may be associated with increased sexual recidivism among certain groups of sexual offenders, specifically incest and other low-risk offenders, which is important information for clinicians and practitioners working with this population. Future research should include data on victims and the context of sexual recidivism. For study 1, denial and recidivism data were collected from the 489 male offenders convicted of hands-on sexual offenses and were assessed at the Royal Ottawa Hospital, Sexual Behaviors Clinic between 1983 and 1995. The Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism (RRASOR) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) were scored for each offender using information collected at assessment and from their criminal record data. Data were analyzed using sequential logistic regression models. Study 2 attempted to replicate the results of study 1 using 2 independent samples of sexual offenders: (1) a dataset of 287 sexual offenders who received Washington State’s Special Sex Offender Sentencing Alternative (SSOSA) (treatment) and 300 sexual offenders who were eligible for SSOSA but did not receive it; and (2) a dataset of 24 sexual recidivists, 7 non-sexually violent recidivists, and 42 non-recidivists who were released from Federal correctional institutions in British Columbia. Data were analyzed using the odds ratio and fixed effect meta-analytic statistics. Tables, references

NCJ 219747
Eric Beauregard; Benoit Leclerc
Application of the Rational Choice Approach to the Offending Process of Sex Offenders: A Closer Look at the Decision-Making
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment
Volume:19 Issue:2 Dated:June 2007 Pages:115 to 133

Using a rational choice theory approach, this study explored the decisionmaking process involved in the offenses of 69 serial sexual offenders who offended against stranger victims. Results indicated that serial sex offenders were capable of a costs-benefits analysis of their actions. Their decisionmaking process underscored the importance of both personal and situational factors, including victim resistance. The findings suggest that rational choice theory can be relevant to the study of sex offenders and also suggests that a greater understanding of sex offender behaviors will come from a greater knowledge of victim behavior. Future research should incorporate both personal and situational factors in order to gain a greater understanding of the offending process and decisionmaking process of sex offenders. Participants were 69 serial sexual offenders recruited from a penitentiary of the Correctional Service of Canada. Semistructured interviews were conducted to identify the rationale driving their actions during the precrime phase, the crime phase, and the postcrime phase. Data were analyzed by breaking down the sex offender decisionmaking process into a series of sequential events. Descriptive statistics were then used to describe each category of events. Figures, references

NCJ 219748
Susanne Bengtson; Niklas Langstrom
Unguided Clinical and Actuarial Assessment of Re-Offending Risk: A Direct Comparison with Sex Offenders in Denmark
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment
Volume:19 Issue:2 Dated:June 2007 Pages:135 to 153

This study compared the predictive validity of unstructured clinical judgments of recidivism risk with those of the well-established Static-99 and the Static-2002 actuarial risk scales for sexual offenders among 121 male sexual offenders in Denmark. Results indicated that the recidivism predictions made on the basis of unstructured clinical judgments fared no better than chance at actually predicting the reconviction rates of offenders for any sexual, severe sexual, or violent offenses. On the other hand, both the Static-99 and the Static-2002 outperformed clinical judgment for predictions of sexual recidivism. However, the Static-2002 proved no better than clinical judgment for the prediction of severe sexual recidivism. Moreover, when tested for recidivism within 2 years, none of the three prediction models faired better than chance for any of the recidivism outcomes. The findings suggest that actuarial risk assessment measures are statistically more likely to predict sexual recidivism than unguided clinical judgments. Future research should focus on testing acute and stable risk factors for sexual offenders. Participants were 121 male sex offenders who were subjected to pretrial forensic assessments (FPE) in Denmark between 1978 and 1992. Psychiatrists employed at the two forensic psychiatric settings conducted the unguided clinical risk judgment. The Static-99 and Static-2002 were completed for each offender based on psychiatric reports and criminal records obtained from the Danish Central Crime Register. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s rank correlation statistics. Tables, figure, references

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